Izinkinga nge-Test Automation ne-QA Yesimanje

Yiziphi ezinye zezinkinga ezijwayelekile nge-automation yokuhlola ku-agile naku-DevOps?

Ukuthuthukiswa kweSoftware yanamuhla ne-QA kugxile kakhulu ekuzenzekelayo kokuhlola futhi akwenele ekuhlolweni kokuhlola.

Ngabe sikhipha isoftware esezingeni elingcono ngokuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo? Angicabangi!

Ngisanda kuthola okubhalwe kwinethiwekhi yezokuxhumana okwathi

Engikubonayo emicimbini eminingi yokuhlola neye-QA namuhla ikakhulukazi yi-DevOps, i-Continuous Integration ne-Test Automation.

Yize konke lokho kukuhle kakhulu, ngibona amacala amaningi wokuhlolwa we-crappy ezenzakalelayo.



Ngibona izimbungulu ezimbalwa ezibikiwe ngesikhathi sokuhlolwa kokuhlanganiswa kanye nokuhlolwa kokusebenza yize konke kuzenzakalelayo.

Ku-UAT abasebenzisi bathola izimbungulu eziningi ngokwengeziwe ngoba amaqembu okuhlola ayahluleka ukuwabona ezigabeni ezedlule.

Uma singafundisi abantu ukuthi babhala kanjani amakesi wokuhlola amahle sizogcina sesinemishini ezenzakalelayo ngokuphelele…

Nokuhunyushwa kwami ​​kwe… ngu “crap”. :-)

Noma kunjalo, ake sibone ukuthi yini ngempela okwenzeka emhlabeni we-Modern QA ne-Test Automation.

Izinkinga nge-QA Yesimanje

Iningi le- 'Test Automation' ngaphakathi kokuthuthukiswa kwe-agile lisesimweni esibucayi. Imboni ye-software ithela izizumbulu zemali ukuqasha “Ochwepheshe Bokuzenzakalelayo” ikakhulukazi ukuthola umuzwa wokuzethemba ukuthi isoftware abayakhayo inekhwalithi ephezulu. Noma kunjalo, izimbungulu ezibonakalayo kanye / noma ezinye izingqinamba zitholakala ngesikhathi se-UAT noma zingena ziye ezindaweni zokukhiqiza. Ngakho-ke, kwenzekani?

Qaphela:Nge-Test Automation, ngibhekisa kakhulu ku- U-ANYANINI Ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo.

Ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo manje kusenhliziyweni yanoma iyiphi inqubo yesimanje yokuthuthukiswa kwesoftware. Inhloso yayo uku Usizo ukuletha isoftware esezingeni eliphakeme ngokuphindwayo, kepha ingabe kunjalo ngempela?

Ingabe Abahloli Basavivinya?

Iqiniso lodaba ukuthi emaqenjini amaningi we-agile, abahloli abasazihloli.

Ukuhlolwa okwenziwe ngezandla kuye kwalahlekelwa ubuhle baso, ngenxa yemikhuba yentuthuko namasiko anjenge-agile futhi I-DevOps , ezidale ukwehlukana esikhaleni se-QA - labo abangakwazi ukufaka ikhodi nalabo abangakwazi.

Uvame ukuzwa izinto ezinjengokuthi, 'Ngingu-100% engineer automation', noma '80% automation 20% manual', noma okubi nakakhulu, 'Ngiyakuzonda ukuhlolwa okwenziwa ngezandla'. Kuyashaqisa!

Ku-DevOps, siholelwa ekukholweni ukuthi yonke into kufanele izenzekele. Ayikho indawo yokungenelela mathupha, isb. ukuhlolwa okwenziwa ngesandla.

Kulezi zinsuku, iningi labahloli abaseqenjini le-agile balwela ukuhambisana nesidingo se- 'Test Automation'. Kukhona ingcindezi yokushintsha yonke indaba ku-sprint, futhi asikho isikhathi esanele sokuhlolwa okuphelele kokuhlola.

Inkinga, ikakhulukazi ekuthuthukisweni kwe-Agile, ukuthi ama-QAs athatha indaba yomsebenzisi futhi azenzele inqubo yokuwamukela. Ngenkathi benza lokhu, ukugxila kwabo okuyinhloko nokuwukuphela kwabo ukulwa namakhono abo wokulinganisela wokufaka amakhodi ukuze isivivinyo sidlule.

Ngokwemvelo, lokhu kudala ukugxila okuncane lapho unentshisekelo yokwenza isivivinyo ngokuzenzakalela futhi sikubone kudlula kwipayipi lokwakha. Lokhu kufakazela kuphela ukuthi bekukwenqubo yokwamukela - okulungile noma okungalungile - kuyasebenza futhi uvame ukukhohlwa ngesithombe esikhulu.

Ukwehla Ekuhlolweni Kwemanuwali

“Abahloli bendabuko” abaningi ngokwengeziwe bashintshela “ekuhlolweni kwe-agile” ngokuthatha izifundo ezithile zokufaka amakhodi futhi babe nobuchwepheshe obuthe xaxa.

Ungangizwa kabi; konke lokhu kuhle. Ngikholwa ukuthi njengabahloli, kufanele ngaso sonke isikhathi silwele ukufunda ubuchwepheshe obusha nobusafufusa ukuze sihlale sinobuhlakani. Kufanele siqonde isitaki se-tech uma sifuna ukuhlola uhlelo ngezinga eliphakeme lekhwalithi.

Kodwa-ke, isizathu sangempela esenza iningi labahloli bezandla bathathe lezi zinhlelo ukuthi kunenkolelo ejwayelekile yokuthi 'ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo' kuphakeme kunokuhlolwa okwenziwa ngezandla futhi heyi, ukufaka amakhodi kumnandi, akunjalo?

Qaphela:Ngokuhlolwa okwenziwa ngesandla, ngingu HHAYI kubhekiswa endleleni yesikole yakudala yokulandela iskripthi nokwenza izinyathelo. Ngikhuluma ngalabo okuthiwa 'abahloli bokuhlola' - labo abenza ukuhlolwa kwangempela futhi banelukuluku lokuhlola ukusebenza kohlelo ngokusebenzisa izimo ezithokozisayo nezicabangayo.

Ngeshwa, kubonakala sengathi ukwehla okukhulu emakethe kwabahloli bokuhlola. Lokhu kusobala impela. Vele usebenzise imibuzo embalwa yokusesha ye- 'tester manual' ne- 'automation tester' kunoma iyiphi indawo yomsebenzi we-IT, bese uzibonela imiphumela.

Izinkinga nge-Test Automation

Manje, ake sibone ukuthi kungani iningi lomzamo wokuzenzakalela wokuhlola ungalethi noma yiliphi inani.

Amaphutha ajwayelekile engiwabona enzeka ephindelela:

  • Ukuba nokulindela okungalungile kokuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo
  • Ukuhlola okuzenzakalelayo kusendlalelo esingalungile, ngesikhathi esingalungile nokusebenzisa amathuluzi angalungile
  • Ukuzenzakalela ukuhlolwa okungenamsebenzi
  • Ukunganaki izindawo ezibalulekile
  • Izimo zokhiye ezingekho

Ukulindela Okungalungile

Ngesikhashana ngibhalile okuthunyelwe kubhulogi ku kungani ungafuna ukwenza ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo ? Uma ungakayifundi, kufanelekile ukuyifunda.

Isifinyezo saleyo ndatshana ukuthi uhlela izivivinyo ofuna ukuzenza njalo. Ngokwencazelo, lokhu ukuhlolwa kwakho kokuhlehla okuqinisekisa ukuthi uhlelo lusasebenza.

Kodwa-ke, uma amasheke azenzakalelayo ethola izingqinamba eziningi zokuhlehla, ngizobuza amakhono wabathuthukisi kanye nenqubo yokuthuthuka. Ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo kwe-UI akufanele [kubanjelwe izindleko ze] noma [kunxeshezelwe] ngokufaka amakhodi lousy.

Isendlalelo esingalungile, amathuluzi angalungile nesikhathi esingalungile

Ubuningi be- 'Test Automation Engineers' emaqenjini we-agile, bheka indaba yomsebenzisi bese uyazishintsha inqubo yokwamukelwa. Isikhathi esiningi lokhu kwenziwa ngenhlanganisela yeSelenium neCucumber.

Izicelo zewebhu zesimanje sezihlukaniswe ngokusobala phakathi kwe-backend ne-frontend. I-backend yakhiwe kakhulu ngezinsizakalo eziningi ze-REST web services noma ama-API anezindawo zokufinyelela ezifinyeleleka kalula.

I-logic yohlelo lokusebenza ingahlolwa kusendlalelo se-API. Kodwa-ke, iningi lonjiniyela bokuzenzekelayo bavivinya ekusebenzeni kokungqimba kwe-UI okunzima kakhulu.

Kunamathuluzi wokuhlola ngaphandle, njenge I-Karate ne-Rest-Assured, eyenza lula ukuhlolwa kwe-API. Kufanele sisebenzise lawa mathuluzi ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka. Ngokudabukisayo, abanye onjiniyela be-automation abazi abazi ne izisekelo ze-HTTP , ingasaphathwa eyokwazi ukubhala izimo zokuhlolwa kwe-API.

Ngokuqondene ne-UI ezishintshayo, ICypress iyithuluzi elikhulu. Kufana nethuluzi le-TDD labathuthukisi bokugcina. Abathuthukisi bathola impendulo esheshayo ngokuziphatha kwezingxenye ezintsha ze-UI.

Kokubili iKarate neCypress kusebenza 'njengamathuluzi wokuhlola wokuthuthuka', okungukuthi amathuluzi aqondisa futhi asekele intuthuko. Zombili zilula, kulula ukuzihlanganisa futhi zinganikeza ukuzethemba entuthukweni .

Ngemuva kwalokho singasebenzisa iSelenium noma iCypress ukuklama kuphela izimo ezimbalwa ezisebenzisa uhlelo ukuphela kokuphela. Lezi zimo zakha iphakethe lethu lokunciphisa isisindo esincane futhi linikeze ukuzethemba ekuqhubekeni kwebhizinisi .

Kaningi ngizwa izinto ezinjengokuthi, 'silinda kuze kube yilapho isici sesithuthuke ngokugcwele futhi sizinzile, ngaphambi kokuzenzekelayo kokuhlolwa'. Noma yimuphi umhloli owaziyo uyazi ukuthi izimbungulu zesici esisha zidlula izimbungulu zokuhlehla. Kukhona ithuba eliphakeme lokuthola izingqinamba ngesici esithuthukayo samanje, kunesici esizinzile.

Uma uzosebenzisa isikhathi ukwenza izivivinyo ngokuzenzakalela, zenze ngokufana nentuthuko lapho zinganikeza inani elingaphezulu.

Ukuzenzakalela Ukuhlolwa Okungenamsebenzi

Ungazenzisi zonke 'izivivinyo' ngenhloso yakho. Faka inqubo ethile yokucabanga kulo mdlalo. Funda imidwebo yokwakha esezingeni eliphakeme futhi esezingeni eliphansi. Buza ukuthi yini okungahambanga kahle. Hlola amaphoyinti wokuhlanganisa bese ubheka amaphuzu wokuhluleka ongaba khona.

Thatha indlela esuselwe engcupheni ku-automation njengoba ungenza (ngethemba) ngenqubo yakho yonke yokuhlola. Yini amathuba okuthi okuthile kwehluleke, futhi uyini umthelela wokwehluleka? Uma impendulo iphezulu, khona-ke lezo zimo kufanele zizenzekele futhi zenziwe kukho konke ukwakhiwa.

Ku-sprint ngayinye, imvamisa sigcina ngokubhala izivivinyo ezizenzakalelayo ezizungeze izindaba zomsebenzisi zaleyo sprint bese sikhohlwa ngokuhlanganiswa nezinye izici. Kukhona ukuhlolwa okubuthakathaka noma okungekho kokuhlanganiswa.

Khumbula ukuzenzakalela 'izivivinyo' kuthatha isikhathi. Futhi khumbula ukuthi ngokwenza ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo, awuhloli ngempela, umane ubheke nje ukuthi isici okukhulunywa ngaso sanelisa imibandela ethile yokwamukelwa.

Wena ngeke shintsha ukuhlolwa, kepha ungenza ukuhlola okuzenzakalelayo kwamaqiniso aziwayo.

Ngakho-ke, ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho uchitha ukwenza 'isivivinyo' ngokuzenzakalela, cabanga ngesikhathi osichitha ngokungahloli!

Ukudebeselela Izindawo ezibalulekile

Ngibona ngokwanda lokhu kunganaki selokhu kwazalwa isiko le-DevOps.

Ku-DevOps, ipayipi lokulethwa, kanye nemibhalo yokuthunyelwa kungumgogodla wokuthuthuka nokulethwa kwesoftware, kepha abahlolwa njalo.

Eminyakeni embalwa edlule, bengingasho kalula, ukuthi ngibone okuningi 'izingqinamba zemvelo' kunezimbungulu ezisebenzayo. Izinkinga zemvelo ezifana nezinkinga ngeseva ye-CI, imibhalo yokuthunyelwa, izindawo zokuhlola, njalonjalo.

Izinkinga zemvelo zinomthelela omkhulu emzamweni wokuthuthukisa nokuhlola. Basebenzisa isikhathi esiningi sonjiniyela kanye ne-DevOps futhi banciphisa kakhulu inqubo yokuthunyelwa, kepha akukho ukucatshangelwa kokuhlolwa futhi ngaleyo ndlela kuvinjelwe lezi zinkinga.

Simane sizamukele njengengxenye yokulethwa kwesoftware yanamuhla.

Sichitha umzamo omkhulu sisebenzisa indlela yokusebenza futhi singazinaki ngokuphelele 'izinto' ezibaluleke kakhulu. Okubi kakhulu ukuthi kufanele uthembele ekuhlolweni kwe-Selenium ukukhombisa ukuthi ngabe ukuthunyelwa kuyasebenza noma cha!

Izimo Zokhiye Ezilahlekile

Izimo ziyinkosi! Ngemuva kwakho konke, yizimo eziveza izimbungulu.

Imvamisa, inkinga ebucayi ivuza ekukhiqizweni ngoba akekho noyedwa owacabanga ngalesi simo esithile. Inani lezivivinyo ezenziwa ngokuzenzakalela alinandaba. Uma isimo singazange sicatshangwe noma sihlolwe, umthetho wesod usitshela ukuthi kunesiphazamisi lapho.

Ngeshwa, ezindaweni eziningi ezisheshayo zentuthuko, akunikezwanga ngokwanele kulo msebenzi obaluleke kakhulu we- 'Scenario Workshop'.

Izinkinga ngenqubo

Ake sibone ukuthi lezi zinkinga ezingenhla zizibonakalisa kanjani esimweni esijwayelekile sokuthuthuka:

  • Umnikazi womkhiqizo ubhala izindaba zomsebenzisi ngaphandle kwenqubo noma ubuncane bokwamukelwa.
  • Akunasikhathi esanele esinikezelwe ngezikhathi zokucwengwa kwendaba ukuxoxa ngezimo ezahlukahlukene zendaba yomsebenzisi.
  • Izindlela zokwamukelwa zihunyushwa njengezivivinyo zokwamukela - Yebo, kukhona umehluko phakathi kwalokhu okubili !
  • Abahloli basebenzisa kuphela inqubo yokwamukelwa ezindabeni zomsebenzisi ikakhulukazi besebenzisa iSelenium kanye / noma neKhukhamba.
  • Ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo cishe ngaso sonke isikhathi kungumthwalo 'wabahloli be-automation'.
  • Onjiniyela abazi nakancane ukuthi yini embozwe emaphaketheni wokuhlola noma abazi ngisho nokuthi kwenziwa kanjani ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo.
  • Ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo kungezwa ephaketheni elikhulayo le- “regression pack” ngakho-ke kuthatha isikhathi eside futhi isikhathi eside ukwedlula isikhathi ngasinye.
  • Ukuhlolwa kokusebenza okuzenzakalelayo kwe-UI kuhlanganisiwe kupayipi lokwakha, elihle kepha…

Umthuthukisi ucindezela ushintsho olulula futhi kufanele alinde imizuzu engama-30 ukuze izivivinyo ezizenzakalelayo zihambe ziluhlaza ngaphambi kokuthi isici esisha noma ukulungiswa kwamaphutha kuthunyelwe ekukhiqizeni. Ukulinda imizuzu engama-30 kuphela uma izivivinyo zidlula okokuqala. Uma behluleka ngenxa yokuhlolwa okuthile noma izinkinga zemvelo, kungathatha isikhathi eside.

Njengoba izivivinyo ezizenzakalelayo zisebenza futhi i-QA iphenya ukwehluleka okungahleliwe, unjiniyela kanye / noma umnikazi womkhiqizo ukuqinisekisile ukuqaliswa okusha futhi bayakujabulela ukukhulula, kepha abakwazi ngoba ukwakhiwa akuluhlaza.

Ngemuva kwesikhashana, noma ngabe ukwakhiwa kuba luhlaza noma abaphathi bakhungatheka ngezivivinyo ezihlulekayo bese benza isinqumo sokukhulula noma kunjalo. Ngemuva kwalokho, i-BOOM, ngemuva kwemizuzu embalwa ekukhiqizeni, kune-spike kumaphutha we-500 server.

Ukwehluleka Kwengqalasizinda

Ukwehluleka kubonakala kukhombisa iphethini efanayo

  • Ukwehluleka ezindaweni zokuhlanganisa.
  • Ukwehluleka ukuxhumana nezinhlelo zokusebenza zenkampani yangaphandle.
  • Izinsizakalo zeWebhu zingabi “phezulu” futhi nezicelo ezikumaphethelo e-API zehluleka.
  • Ukucushwa okungalungile kokunye kwama-VM noma ama-node, ngaleyo ndlela kuholele ezinkingeni ezithile.

Futhi-ke, ayikho inqubo ekhona yokuhlola lezi zinkinga njengengxenye yenqubo yokuthuthuka noma yokulethwa.

Ukugxila konjiniyela be-automation yokuhlola ukwenza izivivinyo ezisebenzayo. Akukho ukugxila ekusebenzeni, ekuphepheni noma ekuqineni. Futhi impela akukho ukuhlolwa kwengqalasizinda!

Isifinyezo

Isikhathi sesifikile sokuthi sigxile ekuvivinyweni kokusebenza okuzenzakalelayo okunamathuba amancane okubamba izingqinamba zokusebenza kuya ezindabeni ezibucayi nezijwayelekile zemvelo ezikhathaza intuthuko.

Ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo, uma kwenziwe kabi noma ngaphandle kwenqubo yokucabanga , ukuchitha isikhathi futhi akuhlinzeki ngalutho kunoma ngubani. Ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo kweCrappy kungangenisa ezindlekweni ezinkulu zesondlo futhi kuphazamise nentuthuko. Ekugcineni, okuwukuphela kwekhambi ukubamba izivivinyo.

Ekuthuthukisweni kwesoftware yesimanje, iningi lemizamo ye- 'Test Automation Engineers' isetshenziselwa ukulwa nekhodi ezenzakalelayo nokwenza 'izivivinyo' zisebenze kunokugxila ekuhlolweni okufanele nasekuhloleni uhlelo.

Asikho isikhathi esanele sokubhala ikhodi ezenzakalelayo futhi yenza ukuhlolwa kokuhlola. Sishintsha indaba ngezindaba futhi sikhohlwe ngokuhlolwa kokuhlanganiswa, sikhohlwe isithombe esikhulu.

Imvamisa sigcina sisebenzisa amathani wezivivinyo ezizenzakalelayo, kepha ukuhlolwa kokuhlola kuthola iningi lezimbungulu. Ngemuva kwalokho sibheka emuva, sibhala ukuhlolwa okuzenzakalelayo kwezimbungulu ezitholwe ngokuhlola okuhlolwayo, ukubamba izimbungulu zokubuyela emuva.

Kufanele sikhethe ukuthi yini okufanele sizenzele yona futhi sahlulele isinqumo sethu ngokususelwa engcupheni. Yini engonakala, yini amathuba okuthi ihambe kabi futhi uzoba yini umthelela kumsebenzisi noma ebhizinisini uma kungahambanga kahle?

Uma usebhizinisini le- 'Test Automation' ngakho-ke sicela ungasebenzisi i-Selenium ukuhlola ukusebenza kwama-API noma izingxenye ze-UI. Esikhundleni salokho, sebenzisa i-Selenium ukwenza kuphela izimo ezimbalwa eziwusizo nezibucayi zebhizinisi ukunikeza ukuzethemba ekuqhubekeni kwebhizinisi ngaphambi kokukhishwa ngakunye.

Okokugcina, ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho uchitha ukwenza 'isivivinyo' ngokuzenzakalela, cabanga ngesikhathi osichitha ngokungahloli!

Ukufunda Okuqhubekayo: